Laminar
again the 2015 World Champion Hang Glider
the other HG models  MastR  Orbiter  RX2  RXbip 
All slide shows
the Hang Glider the war machine Technora sail State of the art frame
Rio de Janeiro Landscapes Landscapes 2 Worlds 2015 2013
March 2015
Fantastic results: Christian Ciech first, Antoine Boisselier second at the 2015 Hang Gliding World Championships in Mexico

Both with our Laminar hang glider that has now won a total of 7 World Championships !!!


The Laminar absolutely dominated the competition, winning seven out of the eight tasks.
 
The comments of Christian:
"Eight tasks, generous heights, but flying over very high ground that made landings rather difficult.
An exceptional team, working well together and in excellent physical shape, and a hang glider, the Laminar, more competitive than ever before: these were the factors that enabled me to reach the goal for which I had been waiting for so long.
And so I have won my first flex-wing World Championships, and with the team, we have attained our fourth consecutive world title. A result that up until today has never been achieved by any other team.”

Look at the many and beautiful pictures of the Italian team leader Flavio Tebaldi

 
Principal features        (Index)  
 
2
Introduction

From when the LAMINAR first appeared in 1994, it has undergone many changes.
Today, all modifications are tested by three world champions: Manfred Ruhmer, Christian Ciech (current world champion), and Alex Ploner.
Icaro 2000’s competition hang gliders have obtained DHV certification, including the full optional version with the same regulations as flown by our pilots during an entire season’s competition.
The introduction of the new wingtips has further increased aspect ratio, giving the glider even better performance at speeds in the middle-lower parts of the speed range.
The higher aspect ratio, obtained by means of a different distribution of the chord along the span, has made it possible to increase wing loading. This means better handling, better performance, and above all, greater flying pleasure.
In addition, the new chord distribution along the span has increased the proportion of sail area at the extremities. This has further improved both lateral and longitudinal stability.
 
3
New features

The most important new features of our top-of-the-range hang glider are the new circular-section crossbar, along with a new central H-block and the new joints linking crossbar and wing spar.
Developed in order to reduce the weight of the structure, they have also contributed to greater rigidity and strength.
The new aerofoil profile is also very important. It improves efficiency when climbing in thermals, and during intermediate glides. It therefore offers the pilot benefits in all flight situations. It enhances pilot confidence, and ensures safety in turbulence.
The new layout of the carbon fibre used for the battens yields excellent finish and reduces fragility of these components. This improves reliability.
The new wingtips have given the glider an innovative look with their elliptic design, and they offer important benefits in terms of glide performance and rate of climb in thermals, by virtue of the reduction in induced drag that they provide.
The sprogs and tips (also in carbon fibre) have a new conformation as regards their carbon components. They are larger, stronger and more rigid. They improve the smoothness of the upper and lower sail surfaces, by means of new terminal parts in Ergal, machined from solid alloy.
All this has enabled us to achieve excellent results, in terms of weight reduction, an increase in rigidity and strength, and in terms of stability.
The new certification values for the Laminar are the best proof:
Laminar 14.1
Internal sprog:    Laminar Z9 5.75     Laminar 3.6
External sprog:    Laminar Z9 9.30     Laminar 8.35
 
4
The Sail

The Laminar sail now has 6 removable mini-battens on the trailing edge, with a total weight of less than 15 grams, which have eliminated the vibration that sometimes occurred in this part of the sail at speeds exceeding 100 km/h.
The leading edge is no longer interrupted at the nose by the presence of pockets for the Mylar stiffeners, and this ensures optimum, uniform leading edge tension distribution.
The new design of the upper sail surface totally eliminates even the slightest degree of fabric deformation at all VG settings during flight.
The design of the leading edge and the front part of the double surface has been modified to optimize profile shape and tension distribution.
Likewise the design of the inner leading edge canvas has also been modified, again to improve sail tension in the forward part of the wing.
The chord ratio between the central and wingtip sections has been modified, and this has made it possible to increase aspect ratio. This has produced notable benefits in terms of handling, performance, stability, and flying pleasure for the pilot.
The 14.1 and 14.8 models have one extra batten to further reduce profile deformation at high speeds. The wingspan/battens ratio is now equivalent to that of the smaller models.
The batten pockets on the under-surface have been redesigned to prevent the battens from sliding out when the hang glider is exposed to a strong tail wind while waiting at the launch site.
The keel pocket now has an additional segment, a cover that hides the VG pulleys. This cover improves the appearance of the rear part of the wing, and reduces the aerodynamic drag. It provides protection when the hang glider has been disassembled and closed.
 
5
Sail design and sail colours

The new Laminar is different from the Z9 in terms of visual appearance, with a new, more aggressive design of the lower wing surface. There is a choice of 48 different colour schemes, but an infinite number of personalization possibilities are available.
 
6
Standard model (with Square sail)

The standard model is supplied with our special sail made in a Dacron material named “Square”.
This sail provides the best guarantee of durability over time. It has excellent rip stop characteristics as a result of the reinforcement fibre arranged in two orthogonal directions.
It is the ideal choice for non-competition pilots who nonetheless wish to fly a high-performance hang glider that also guarantees an extended operational life.
 
7
Sail in Tecnora (optional)

Icaro 2000 is committed to ongoing research in the quest for optimal quality and performance, and so the LSP sail has now been replaced by a new sail in Technora.
This is lighter (up to 600 g lighter than an LSP sail) and offers better aspect ratio. It gives the Laminar even better handling characteristics, along with unparalleled performance during glides.
Experience in aerobatic competition flying has led to new centre-section reinforcement, specially designed for use with Technora sails. This has made the glider more responsive, and improves the wing's efficiency in manoeuvres such as pulling out sharply from a high-speed dive.
The reinforcement added for the wingtips is also new, designed to increase the durability of laminate sails while also giving competition hang gliders a new and more aggressive design.

Look also at the slide show Technora
 
8
The Ergal frame

The tubes used for Icaro 2000 hang gliders are made in Ergal 7075, the alloy utilized in the aerospace industry.
They are manufactured by drawing, which guarantees the best possible performance in terms of weight, rigidity and reliability.

Look also at the slide show the state of the art frame
 
9
Circular-section crossbar and H-block

The new crossbar design with increased diameter and circular section, and the new lamination of the carbon used in this component, have enabled a considerable weight reduction, while also increasing the maximum take-off load.
A new and more robust central H-block has helped achieve these results.
The new joints between crossbar and wing spar have also contributed to weight reduction, improving transfer of load to the crossbar and increasing torsional rigidity.
By means of these innovations, the total savings in weight when compared to the previous light version of the cross-bar is 700 grams in the 14.1 size and 1,200 grams for the 12.6 size. At the same time, the maximum take-off weight permitted has increased by 10 kg in the larger size of the hang glider.
 
10
Crossbar junction and H-block

Icaro2000 is the only hang glider manufacturer in the world to manufacture, for all its topless models, a central crossbar junction block in Ergal 7075, made by the digitally-controlled machining of a solid block.
This process yields a strong, light component, in which stress is uniformly distributed throughout the structure of the unit.
The cost of this technological process, when compared to the customary system used by our competitors (two aluminium plates screwed to the central slider) is much more expensive. However, it ensures a higher degree of strength and reliability.
The new H-block has been redesigned in order to accommodate the circular-section cross-bar of increased dimensions. The greater strength that this provides has made it possible to attain the increases in maximum take-off weight as described above.
 
11
11
Crossbar-wing spar joint for circular-section crossbar

The new crossbar-wing spar joints have helped reduce overall weight and, most significantly, they have improved stress distribution throughout the crossbar, also increasing the torsional rigidity of the crossbar-wing spar joint.
This has made it possible to attain the desired level of stability for the hang glider, with sprog values that are lower when compared to the Z9.
As for the central crossbar junction, this important component in Ergal 7075 is made by the digitally-controlled machining of a solid block.
The resulting unit is tough and compact, helping to give the glider an optimum wing profile at all VG configurations.
 
12
Sprogs

The carbon sprog of the centre section of each half-wing has been slightly compensated in order to provide variable washout at different VG configurations.
It is larger in the Laminar, providing greater strength and making the wing surface cleaner, by means of a part machined from a piece of solid Ergal at the tip of the sprog.
 
13
13
Compensated Twist Tips

The new carbon fibre tips are thicker and have a part in Ergal at their extremity, like the sprogs.
They are made using the exclusive Icaro 2000 “Compensated Twist Tips” system, which ensures that the outer tips (which provide support for the two outermost battens) can move in mutually opposite directions, even when the sail is in direct contact with them.
This situation occurs in Variable Geometry configurations from to full on.
At these VG settings, wings of the previous generation did not permit any sail movement, and this caused a reduction in handling qualities.
The system is completed by an efficient compensation system, another Icaro 2000 exclusive feature, linked to VG movement, ensuring the best possible performance and stability for the hang glider.
 
14
Batten ends

The “snap lock” system is efficient and practical, and it also permits the precise regulation of sail tension.
 
15
Optional competition features

 
16
Aluminium competition A-frame

The aluminium competition downtubes have a profile that includes a turbulator, which guarantees a low aerodynamic drag coefficient, and ensures the best possible performance/price ratio.
As they are slightly longer than standard downtubes, they also give the glider better handling and eliminate any bias during turns.
This A-frame is available with the MR carbon fibre bar, or with the new aluminium competition speedbar.
 
17
All-carbon MR competition A-frame

Downtubes in carbon fibre, with 88 mm chord profile, and ergonomic grips.
Low weight, very low aerodynamic drag coefficient, and unique design: these factors make this A-frame a distinctive feature of a top glider.
Available with the MR carbon fibre bar, or with the new aluminium competition speedbar.
 
19
19
MR carbon speedbar

Aerodynamics, Ergonomics, Lightness. In your hands.
 
20
Carbon battens

Carbon battens have a far higher rigidity when compared to aluminium battens, and so they give the hang glider greater stability and improved performance.
The benefits of carbon fibre battens become immediately obvious from the greater stability that they provide.
The reflex aerofoil profile is in fact improved by the greater rigidity of this type of batten, and this has an important effect on wing stability. As a result, the degree of washout introduced by sprogs and tips can be reduced.
The efficacy of carbon battens is such that they should be the first optional feature to choose when the objective is to possess a hang glider of highest possible performance.
For example, when using aluminium battens, with VG fully tightened and sprogs and tips adjusted to the furthest possible degree, bar pressure is close to zero at about 90 km/h. Flying the same hang glider in the same configuration, except with the new carbon fibre battens, bar pressure will be positive at all speeds; more specifically, it will be light, but still positive, even at 120 km/h.
Our carbon battens are 12 and 10 mm in diameter.
The benefits that we have experienced using carbon battens are so exceptional that their adoption is more than justified, notwithstanding their high price.
 
21
Carbon fibre stiffeners

These carbon fibre components are inserted into a Mylar pocket in the central part of the leading edge.
They are available in a longer 2.5 m version, or a shorter 1.25 m version, both 20 cm wide.
This optional component prevents changes in aerofoil profile at high speeds, optimizing performance at speeds over 80 km/h.
 
22
Carbon leading eadges

Designed to optimize handling and performance, carbon leading eadges provide a weight reduction of up to 1.25 kg and a 10% increase in rigidity.
They have a minimum thickness that is 30% greater with respect to aluminium wingtips, and they are also stronger, ensuring high reliability and durability.
The perfect combination of performance and handling.
 
23
23
Wingtips

Developed in order to reduce wingtip vortices, the new wingtips increase aspect ratio and therefore increase performance in the mid-low speed range.
As a result, they improve efficiency at the most frequently-used gliding speeds, and increase performance in thermals.
At the same time, they give a new and attractive look to the hang glider.
 
24
Profiler

The Profiler is a foam applied to the front of the leading edge spar tube, reducing its radius of curvature and giving it a higher penetration.
It also has the secondary effect of increasing sail tension and reducing washout when VG is full on, and so it increases performance at high speeds.
 
26
Tech Data Sheet
 
  Size 12.6 13.1 13.7 14.1 14.8  
 
Area m2 12.52 13.24 13.88 14.16 14.82
 
Nose angle Deg. 132 132 132 134 134
 
Wingspan ml 9.61 10.05 10.05 10.54 10.54
 
Aspect Ratio 7.38 7.63 7.28 7.85 7.50
 
Double Surface % 96 96 94 96 94
 
Battens  upper+lower sail+2 fixed nose battens nr 22+4 24+6 24+6 26+6 26+6
 
Weight    without glider bag kg 28.5 30.5 31 32.5 33
 
Pilot Hook-In Weight (min / max) kg 55/75 70/85 80/90 90/100 100/110
 
Suggested Pilot Hook-In Weight kg 70 83 88 97 105
 
Packing Bag Length ml 4.75 4.98 4.98 5.20 5.20
 
Short Packed Length ml 3.35 3.90 3.90 4.10 4.10
 
Certification DHV 3 3 3 3 3
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Icaro 2000 srl, via Verdi 19, 21038 Sangiano - Italy      [email protected]     vat nr. it 01265610129

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